Natural Disasters

This demonstrates putting Tab Separated Values (TSVs) directly in Scroll files.
Although this approach is handy for small datasets, it does not scale as well as ScrollSets.
Natural Disaster Description Measurement Scale Min Max
Hurricane A tropical cyclone with sustained winds of 74 mph (119 km/h) or higher Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale 1 5
Earthquake Sudden shaking of the Earth's surface caused by the release of energy Moment Magnitude Scale (MMS) 0 10
Tsunami A series of ocean waves caused by underwater disturbances, such as earthquakes Tsunami Intensity Scale 1 6
Tornado A violently rotating column of air that extends from a thunderstorm to the ground Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale 0 5
Volcanic Eruption The release of lava, ash, and gases from a volcano Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 0 8
Wildfire An uncontrolled fire in a natural area, often caused by lightning or human activity Burned Area 0 Varies
Flood An overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry Flood Severity 0 Varies
Drought A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a water shortage Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) -10 10
Landslide The movement of rock, earth, or debris down a slope due to gravity Landslide Velocity Scale 1 7
Avalanche A rapid flow of snow down a slope, often triggered by weather or human activity Avalanche Danger Scale 1 5
Blizzard A severe snowstorm with high winds and low visibility Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) 1 5
Hailstorm A storm that produces hailstones, which are balls of ice that fall from the sky TORRO Hailstorm Intensity Scale H0 H10
Heat Wave A prolonged period of excessively hot weather Heat Index (HI) 80°F Varies
Cold Wave A prolonged period of excessively cold weather Wind Chill Index Varies Varies
Dust Storm A strong wind that carries large amounts of dust and debris Dust Storm Intensity 0 Varies
Sinkhole A depression or hole in the ground caused by the collapse of the surface layer Sinkhole Size 0 Varies
Limnic Eruption A rare type of natural disaster where dissolved carbon dioxide suddenly erupts from deep lake water No Scale - -
Meteor Impact The collision of a meteoroid, asteroid, or comet with the Earth's surface Torino Impact Hazard Scale 0 10
Solar Flare A sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness on the Sun's surface Solar Flare Classification System (X-class) A1 X28+
Geomagnetic Storm A temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by solar wind shock waves NOAA Space Weather Scale for Geomagnetic Storms G1 G5

Here is a table on warning systems for the various disaster types, including the name of the warning system and the minimum and maximum warning levels:

Natural Disaster Warning System Min Warning Level Max Warning Level
Hurricane National Hurricane Center (NHC) Alerts Tropical Storm Watch Hurricane Warning
Earthquake Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) Systems No Alert Warning
Tsunami Tsunami Warning System Tsunami Watch Tsunami Warning
Tornado National Weather Service (NWS) Tornado Alerts Tornado Watch Tornado Emergency
Volcanic Eruption Volcano Alert Levels Normal Warning
Wildfire National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) Alerts Extreme Fire Danger Extreme Fire Danger
Flood NWS Flood Alerts Flood Advisory Flash Flood Emergency
Drought U.S. Drought Monitor D0 (Abnormally Dry) D4 (Exceptional Drought)
Landslide U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Alerts Landslide Watch Landslide Warning
Avalanche Avalanche Danger Scale Low Extreme
Blizzard NWS Winter Storm Alerts Winter Storm Watch Blizzard Warning
Hailstorm NWS Severe Thunderstorm Alerts Severe Thunderstorm Watch Severe Thunderstorm Warning
Heat Wave NWS Heat Alerts Excessive Heat Outlook Excessive Heat Warning
Cold Wave NWS Wind Chill Alerts Wind Chill Advisory Wind Chill Warning
Dust Storm NWS Dust Storm Alerts Blowing Dust Advisory Dust Storm Warning
Sinkhole No standardized warning system - -
Limnic Eruption No standardized warning system - -
Meteor Impact Torino Impact Hazard Scale White Zone Red Zone
Solar Flare NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Alerts Minor (R1) Extreme (R5)
Geomagnetic Storm NOAA Space Weather Scale for Geomagnetic Storms Minor (G1) Extreme (G5)

Note - Some natural disasters, such as sinkholes and limnic eruptions, do not have standardized warning systems in place.