id | description | durability | moistureContent | workability | density | hardness | growthRate |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Douglas Fir | Commonly used in construction for its strength and availability | Moderate | 12-15% | Good | 530 | 660 | 24 |

Southern Yellow Pine | Known for its high density and strength, often used in heavy construction | Moderate | 8-12% | Moderate | 580 | 870 | 20 |

White Oak | Highly durable and resistant to moisture, used for both interior and exterior applications | High | 8-12% | Fair | 770 | 1360 | 12 |

Black Walnut | Valued for its workability and aesthetic appeal, commonly used in fine furniture and finishes | High | 8-12% | Excellent | 610 | 1010 | 24 |

Red Maple | Versatile and widely available, used for furniture and flooring | Moderate | 6-8% | Good | 630 | 950 | 24 |

Eastern White Pine | Lightweight and easy to work with, used in millwork and cabinetry | Low | 12-15% | Excellent | 380 | 380 | 36 |

Western Red Cedar | Naturally resistant to decay, used for outdoor applications like decking and siding | High | 10-12% | Good | 390 | 350 | 24 |

Sugar Maple | Hard and strong, ideal for flooring and butcher blocks | Moderate | 6-8% | Fair | 740 | 1450 | 12 |

Sitka Spruce | Known for its high strength-to-weight ratio, used in aircraft and marine applications | Low | 12-15% | Good | 450 | 510 | 24 |

Ponderosa Pine | Widely used in construction for its workability and availability | Low | 12-15% | Good | 420 | 460 | 18 |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 10 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Douglas Fir | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

description | 10 | 100% | A brief description of the tree's properties and uses | Commonly used in construction for its strength and availability | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

durability | 10 | 100% | The natural durability of the wood against decay and pests | Moderate | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

moistureContent | 10 | 100% | The typical moisture content of the wood when used in construction | 12-15% | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

workability | 10 | 100% | The ease with which the wood can be cut, shaped, and finished | Good | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

density | 10 | 100% | The density of the wood in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m^3) | 530 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

hardness | 10 | 100% | The Janka hardness rating of the wood, measuring its resistance to wear and denting | 660 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

growthRate | 10 | 100% | The growth rate of the tree in inches per year | 24 | number | 1.9 | false |

id | description | formula | shortFormula | units |
---|---|---|---|---|

Stress in Beam | Determines the internal forces within a beam | stress = moment*distanceFromNeutralAxis/secondMomentOfArea | Ο = M*c/I | NewtonPerSquareMeter |

Shear Force in Beam | Measures the force that causes parts of a material to slide past each other in opposite directions | shearForce = β«(dMoment/dx) dx | V = β«(dM/dx) dx | Newton |

Bending Moment in Beam | Calculates the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force is applied, causing the element to bend | bendingMoment = β«(shearForce dx) | M = β«(V dx) | NewtonMeter |

Deflection of Beam | Calculates the displacement of a point on the beam under load | deflection = load*length^3 / (48*modulusOfElasticity*secondMomentOfArea) | Ξ΄ = PL^3 / (48EI) | Meter |

Natural Frequency of Bridge | Determines the frequency at which the bridge will naturally vibrate | naturalFrequency = (1/2Ο) * β(stiffness/mass) | f_n = (1/2Ο) * β(k/m) | Hertz |

Buckling Load | Determines the critical load at which a column will buckle | criticalLoad = Ο^2*modulusOfElasticity*secondMomentOfArea / (effectiveLengthFactor*length)^2 | P_cr = Ο^2*EI / (KL)^2 | Newton |

Tensile Strength | Measures the resistance of a material to breaking under tension | tensileStrength = load/area | Ο_t = P/A | NewtonPerSquareMeter |

Load-Bearing Capacity | Determines the maximum weight the bridge can hold | loadBearingCapacity = allowableStress * area | P = f * A | Newton |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 8 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Stress in Beam | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

description | 8 | 100% | A brief description of the formula's purpose in bridge building | Determines the internal forces within a beam | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

formula | 8 | 100% | The mathematical formula or equation | stress = moment*distanceFromNeutralAxis/secondMomentOfArea | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

shortFormula | 8 | 100% | The abbreviated version. | Ο = M*c/I | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

units | 8 | 100% | The units of the result of the formula | NewtonPerSquareMeter | string | 1.9 | false |

id | description | formula | units |
---|---|---|---|

Stress in Beam | Determines the internal forces within a beam | stress = moment*distanceFromNeutralAxis/secondMomentOfArea | NewtonPerSquareMeter |

Shear Force in Beam | Measures the force that causes parts of a material to slide past each other in opposite directions | shearForce = β«(dMoment/dx) dx | Newton |

Bending Moment in Beam | Calculates the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force is applied, causing the element to bend | bendingMoment = β«(shearForce dx) | NewtonMeter |

Deflection of Beam | Calculates the displacement of a point on the beam under load | deflection = load*length^3 / (48*modulusOfElasticity*secondMomentOfArea) | Meter |

Load-Bearing Capacity | Determines the maximum weight the structure can hold | loadBearingCapacity = allowableStress * area | Newton |

Thermal Conductivity | Measures the rate at which heat passes through a material | heatTransfer = thermalConductivity * area * temperatureDifference / thickness | WattPerMeterKelvin |

R-Value | Indicates the resistance of a material to heat flow | rValue = thickness / thermalConductivity | SquareMeterKelvinPerWatt |

Heat Loss | Calculates the total heat loss through a structure | heatLoss = area * uValue * temperatureDifference | Watt |

Concrete Mix Design | Determines the proportions of materials in concrete | concreteMix = (cement : sand : aggregate : water) | Ratio |

Roof Slope | Determines the pitch of the roof | roofSlope = rise / run | Ratio |

Brick Calculation | Estimates the number of bricks needed for a wall | numberOfBricks = wallArea / brickArea | Integer |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 11 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Stress in Beam | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

description | 11 | 100% | A brief description of the formula's purpose in home building | Determines the internal forces within a beam | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

formula | 11 | 100% | The mathematical formula or equation | stress = moment*distanceFromNeutralAxis/secondMomentOfArea | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

units | 11 | 100% | The units of the result of the formula | NewtonPerSquareMeter | string | 1.9 | false |

id | description | level |
---|---|---|

Stock Trading | The buying and selling of shares of publicly traded companies | Surface |

Options | Financial instruments that give the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a predetermined price | Surface |

Bonds | Debt securities issued by entities to raise capital, with a promise to pay back with interest | Surface |

Forex | The market for trading foreign currencies | Surface |

Black-Scholes | A mathematical model for pricing options | Basic |

CAPM | Capital Asset Pricing Model, used to determine the expected return on an asset | Basic |

Arbitrage | The practice of taking advantage of price differences in different markets | Basic |

Greeks | Risk measures for options, including Delta, Gamma, Theta, Vega, and Rho | Basic |

Stochastic Calculus | A branch of mathematics used to model random processes | Intermediate |

Monte Carlo | A statistical technique using random sampling to approximate solutions | Intermediate |

Volatility Smile | A pattern in which options with different strike prices have different implied volatilities | Intermediate |

Ito's Lemma | A key result in stochastic calculus used in the derivation of the Black-Scholes equation | Advanced |

Brownian Motion | A continuous-time stochastic process used to model random movements | Advanced |

Martingales | A class of stochastic processes with specific properties useful in financial modeling | Advanced |

HJM | Heath-Jarrow-Morton framework, a model for the evolution of interest rates | Advanced |

Malliavin Calculus | A branch of mathematics providing tools for differentiating stochastic processes | Expert |

Levy Processes | Stochastic processes with stationary independent increments | Expert |

Rough Volatility | A recent development in financial modeling that captures roughness in volatility paths | Expert |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 18 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Stock Trading | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

description | 18 | 100% | A brief description of the concept in quantitative finance | The buying and selling of shares of publicly traded companies | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

idLink | 18 | 100% | A URL to the wikipedia page for the concept | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_(finance) | string | 1.9 | false | idLink | |||

level | 18 | 100% | The level of complexity of the concept in quantitative finance | Surface | string | 1.9 | false |

id | description | speed |
---|---|---|

Air | The most common medium for sound, with speed influenced by temperature, humidity, and pressure | 343 |

Water | A denser medium than air, allowing sound to travel faster | 1482 |

Steel | A dense and elastic solid, sound travels much faster compared to air and water | 5960 |

Glass | A brittle solid with a high speed of sound due to its rigidity | 5200 |

Wood (Oak) | A natural solid with varying speed depending on density and elasticity | 3850 |

Aluminum | A lightweight and strong metal, widely used in engineering | 6320 |

Rubber | A flexible solid with much slower speed of sound compared to metals | 1500 |

Concrete | A composite material used in construction, with speed influenced by its density and composition | 3200 |

Copper | A highly conductive metal, also known for its high speed of sound | 3900 |

Lead | A dense metal with a relatively slower speed of sound due to its softness | 1200 |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 10 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Air | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

description | 10 | 100% | A brief description of the material | The most common medium for sound, with speed influenced by temperature, humidity, and pressure | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

speed | 10 | 100% | The speed of sound in the material in meters per second (m/s) | 343 | number | 1.9 | false |

id | mediatorParticle | interactionType | unification | discoverer | mathematicalFormulation | experimentalEvidence | quantumTheory | classicalTheory | applications | symmetry | discoveryYear | strength | range | strengthScale | massless |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Gravity | Graviton (theoretical) | All particles with mass | Not unified with other forces yet | Isaac Newton | F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2 | Cavendish experiment | General Relativity (attempts at Quantum Gravity) | Newton's Law of Gravitation | Orbits, planetary motion, tides | Spacetime symmetry | 1687 | 6.6743e-11 | Infinity | 1 | true |

Electromagnetic | Photon | Charged particles | Unified with weak force (Electroweak theory) | James Clerk Maxwell | F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2 | Hertz's experiments on electromagnetic waves | Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) | Maxwell's Equations | Electricity, magnetism, light | Gauge symmetry (U(1)) | 1864 | 1 | Infinity | 2 | true |

Weak | W and Z bosons | All fermions | Unified with electromagnetic force (Electroweak theory) | Enrico Fermi | Described by Fermi's interaction | Observed in beta decay | Quantum Flavour Dynamics (QFD) | Fermi's Theory of Beta Decay | Radioactive decay, nuclear fusion | Gauge symmetry (SU(2)) | 1934 | 0.00001 | 1e-18 | 3 | false |

Strong | Gluon | Quarks and gluons | Part of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) | Murray Gell-Mann | Described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) | Deep inelastic scattering experiments | Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) | Does not have a classical counterpart | Binding protons and neutrons in nuclei | Gauge symmetry (SU(3)) | 1973 | 1 | 1e-15 | 4 | true |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 4 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Gravity | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

mediatorParticle | 4 | 100% | The particle that mediates the force | Graviton (theoretical) | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

interactionType | 4 | 100% | The type of particles that the force interacts with | All particles with mass | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

unification | 4 | 100% | Theoretical unification of the force with others | Not unified with other forces yet | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

discoverer | 4 | 100% | The scientist(s) who discovered or proposed the force | Isaac Newton | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

mathematicalFormulation | 4 | 100% | The mathematical formulation or equation that describes the force | F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2 | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

experimentalEvidence | 4 | 100% | Key experimental evidence supporting the existence of the force | Cavendish experiment | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

quantumTheory | 4 | 100% | The quantum field theory describing the force | General Relativity (attempts at Quantum Gravity) | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

classicalTheory | 4 | 100% | The classical theory or law describing the force | Newton's Law of Gravitation | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

applications | 4 | 100% | Practical applications or phenomena explained by the force | Orbits, planetary motion, tides | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

symmetry | 4 | 100% | The symmetry or invariance associated with the force | Spacetime symmetry | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

discoveryYear | 4 | 100% | The year the force was discovered or proposed | 1687 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

strength | 4 | 100% | The relative strength of the force compared to the other forces | 6.6743e-11 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

range | 4 | 100% | The range of the force in meters | Infinity | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

strengthScale | 4 | 100% | The scale of strength (from 0 to 1) for comparison among the forces | 1 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

massless | 4 | 100% | Whether the mediator particle is massless (true/false) | true | boolean | 1.9 | false |

id | creditedTo | country | fieldOfPhysics | equation | yearAppeared | applications | complexity |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Newton's Second Law | Isaac Newton | England | Mechanics | F = ma | 1687 | 100 | 2 |

Einstein's Mass-Energy Equivalence | Albert Einstein | Switzerland | Relativity | E = mc^2 | 1905 | 50 | 5 |

SchrΓΆdinger Equation | Erwin SchrΓΆdinger | Austria | Quantum Mechanics | i\hbar\frac{\partial}{\partial t}\psi = \hat{H}\psi | 1926 | 100 | 7 |

Maxwell's Equations | James Clerk Maxwell | Scotland | Electromagnetism | \begin{align*} \nabla \cdot \mathbf{E} &= \frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} \\ \nabla \cdot \mathbf{B} &= 0 \\ \nabla \times \mathbf{E} &= -\frac{\partial \mathbf{B}}{\partial t} \\ \nabla \times \mathbf{B} &= \mu_0 \mathbf{J} + \mu_0 \epsilon_0 \frac{\partial \mathbf{E}}{\partial t} \end{align*} | 1865 | 50 | 6 |

Boltzmann Equation | Ludwig Boltzmann | Austria | Statistical Mechanics | \frac{\partial f}{\partial t} + \mathbf{v} \cdot \nabla f + \mathbf{a} \cdot \frac{\partial f}{\partial \mathbf{v}} = \left( \frac{\partial f}{\partial t} \right)_\text{collision} | 1872 | 30 | 8 |

Planck's Equation | Max Planck | Germany | Quantum Mechanics | E = h\nu | 1900 | 40 | 6 |

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle | Werner Heisenberg | Germany | Quantum Mechanics | \Delta x \Delta p \geq \frac{\hbar}{2} | 1927 | 20 | 5 |

Hubble's Law | Edwin Hubble | USA | Cosmology | v = H_0 d | 1929 | 25 | 4 |

Fourier Transform | Joseph Fourier | France | Mathematical Physics | \hat{f}(\xi) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x) e^{-2\pi i x \xi} \, dx | 1822 | 70 | 6 |

Lorentz Transformation | Hendrik Lorentz | Netherlands | Relativity | \begin{align*} t' &= \gamma \left( t - \frac{vx}{c^2} \right) \\ x' &= \gamma (x - vt) \end{align*} | 1904 | 20 | 6 |

Dirac Equation | Paul Dirac | UK | Quantum Mechanics | \left( i\gamma^\mu \partial_\mu - m \right) \psi = 0 | 1928 | 30 | 9 |

Navier-Stokes Equation | Claude-Louis Navier, George Gabriel Stokes | France, UK | Fluid Mechanics | \rho \left( \frac{\partial \mathbf{u}}{\partial t} + (\mathbf{u} \cdot \nabla) \mathbf{u} \right) = -\nabla p + \mu \nabla^2 \mathbf{u} + \mathbf{f} | 1822 | 50 | 9 |

Ohm's Law | Georg Ohm | Germany | Electromagnetism | V = IR | 1827 | 100 | 2 |

Hooke's Law | Robert Hooke | England | Mechanics | F = -kx | 1678 | 60 | 2 |

Kepler's Third Law | Johannes Kepler | Germany | Astronomy | T^2 \propto r^3 | 1619 | 30 | 3 |

Bernoulli's Principle | Daniel Bernoulli | Switzerland | Fluid Mechanics | p + \frac{1}{2}\rho v^2 + \rho gh = \text{constant} | 1738 | 50 | 4 |

Faraday's Law of Induction | Michael Faraday | England | Electromagnetism | \mathcal{E} = -\frac{d\Phi_B}{dt} | 1831 | 40 | 5 |

Stefan-Boltzmann Law | Josef Stefan, Ludwig Boltzmann | Austria | Thermodynamics | j^* = \sigma T^4 | 1879 | 30 | 5 |

Lenz's Law | Heinrich Lenz | Russia | Electromagnetism | \mathcal{E} = -\frac{d\Phi_B}{dt} | 1834 | 30 | 4 |

Coulomb's Law | Charles-Augustin de Coulomb | France | Electrostatics | F = k_e \frac{q_1 q_2}{r^2} | 1785 | 50 | 3 |

Fermi-Dirac Statistics | Enrico Fermi, Paul Dirac | Italy, UK | Quantum Mechanics | f(E) = \frac{1}{e^{(E - \mu)/kT} + 1} | 1926 | 40 | 7 |

Bose-Einstein Statistics | Satyendra Nath Bose, Albert Einstein | India, Germany | Quantum Mechanics | f(E) = \frac{1}{e^{(E - \mu)/kT} - 1} | 1924 | 30 | 7 |

Wien's Displacement Law | Wilhelm Wien | Germany | Thermodynamics | \lambda_\text{peak} T = b | 1893 | 25 | 5 |

Poisson's Equation | SimΓ©on Denis Poisson | France | Mathematical Physics | \nabla^2 \phi = -\frac{\rho}{\epsilon_0} | 1813 | 30 | 6 |

AmpΓ¨re's Law | AndrΓ©-Marie AmpΓ¨re | France | Electromagnetism | \nabla \times \mathbf{B} = \mu_0 \mathbf{J} | 1826 | 40 | 4 |

Biot-Savart Law | Jean-Baptiste Biot, FΓ©lix Savart | France | Electromagnetism | d\mathbf{B} = \frac{\mu_0}{4\pi} \frac{I d\mathbf{l} \times \mathbf{\hat{r}}}{r^2} | 1820 | 30 | 5 |

Kirchhoff's Circuit Laws | Gustav Kirchhoff | Germany | Electrical Circuits | \begin{align*} \sum I = 0 \\ \sum V = 0 \end{align*} | 1845 | 50 | 3 |

Gibbs Free Energy | Josiah Willard Gibbs | USA | Thermodynamics | G = H - TS | 1873 | 30 | 6 |

Avogadro's Law | Amedeo Avogadro | Italy | Chemistry | V \propto n | 1811 | 30 | 3 |

de Broglie Hypothesis | Louis de Broglie | France | Quantum Mechanics | \lambda = \frac{h}{p} | 1924 | 25 | 6 |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 30 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Newton's Second Law | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

creditedTo | 30 | 100% | The person or persons credited with the formulation of the equation | Isaac Newton | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

country | 30 | 100% | The country associated with the credited person(s) at the time of the formulation | England | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

fieldOfPhysics | 30 | 100% | The field of physics where the equation is primarily used | Mechanics | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

equation | 30 | 100% | The equation written in KaTeX (LaTeX) | F = ma | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

yearAppeared | 30 | 100% | The year the equation first appeared or was formulated | 1687 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

applications | 30 | 100% | The number of major applications or uses of the equation | 100 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

complexity | 30 | 100% | The relative complexity of the equation (scale 1 to 10) | 2 | number | 1.9 | false |

id | creditedTo | country | application | impact | yearAppeared | importanceRank |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Newton's Second Law (F = ma) | Isaac Newton | England | Classical mechanics | Fundamental equation of motion, used in all areas of physics | 1687 | 1 |

Maxwell's Equations | James Clerk Maxwell | Scotland | Electromagnetism | Unified electricity, magnetism, and light; basis for modern electrodynamics | 1865 | 2 |

SchrΓΆdinger Equation | Erwin SchrΓΆdinger | Austria | Quantum mechanics | Describes the behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic level | 1926 | 3 |

Einstein's Energy-Mass Equivalence (E = mc^2) | Albert Einstein | Germany/Switzerland | Special relativity, nuclear physics | Relates energy to mass, key to understanding nuclear reactions and energy | 1905 | 4 |

Hubble's Law | Edwin Hubble | United States | Cosmology | Established the expansion of the universe, cornerstone of Big Bang theory | 1929 | 5 |

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle | Werner Heisenberg | Germany | Quantum mechanics | Fundamental limit on precision of measurements at quantum scale | 1927 | 6 |

Boltzmann's Entropy Equation | Ludwig Boltzmann | Austria | Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics | Relates entropy to number of microscopic states, foundation of statistical physics | 1877 | 7 |

Planck's Energy Quantum | Max Planck | Germany | Quantum mechanics | Introduced the concept of energy quanta, launching quantum theory | 1900 | 8 |

Dirac Equation | Paul Dirac | England | Quantum mechanics, special relativity | Relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation, predicted antimatter | 1928 | 9 |

Euler's Equation (e^(i*pi) + 1 = 0) | Leonhard Euler | Switzerland | Complex analysis | Relates fundamental constants e, i, pi; considered most beautiful equation | 1748 | 10 |

Principle of Least Action | Pierre Louis Maupertuis | France | Classical mechanics | Alternative formulation of mechanics using variational principle | 1744 | 11 |

Noether's Theorem | Emmy Noether | Germany | Theoretical physics | Connects symmetries to conservation laws, fundamental to modern physics | 1915 | 12 |

Navier-Stokes Equations | Claude-Louis Navier, George Stokes | France, Ireland | Fluid dynamics | Describes motion of viscous fluids, used in aerodynamics, weather, & more | 1822 | 13 |

Riemann Hypothesis | Bernhard Riemann | Germany | Number theory | Conjectured rule for distribution of prime numbers, unproven but very important | 1859 | 14 |

Gauss's Law | Carl Friedrich Gauss | Germany | Electrostatics | Relates electric field to charge distribution, part of Maxwell's equations | 1835 | 15 |

AmpΓ¨re's Circuital Law | AndrΓ©-Marie AmpΓ¨re | France | Magnetostatics | Relates magnetic field to electric current, part of Maxwell's equations | 1826 | 16 |

Faraday's Law of Induction | Michael Faraday | England | Electromagnetism | Describes how changing magnetic field induces electric field | 1831 | 17 |

Boyle's Law | Robert Boyle | Ireland | Thermodynamics | Relates pressure and volume of gas at constant temperature | 1662 | 18 |

Fourier's Heat Equation | Joseph Fourier | France | Heat transfer | Describes conduction of heat in solids, used in many applications | 1822 | 19 |

Coulomb's Law | Charles-Augustin de Coulomb | France | Electrostatics | Describes force between electric charges, foundation of electrostatics | 1785 | 20 |

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion | Johannes Kepler | Germany | Astronomy | Describes motion of planets around the Sun, basis for Newton's gravity | 1609 | 21 |

Lorentz Force Law | Hendrik Lorentz | Netherlands | Electromagnetism | Describes force on charge moving in electromagnetic field | 1895 | 22 |

Biot-Savart Law | Jean-Baptiste Biot, FΓ©lix Savart | France | Magnetostatics | Describes magnetic field generated by electric current | 1820 | 23 |

Fermat's Principle of Least Time | Pierre de Fermat | France | Optics | Light travels path that takes least time, explains refraction and reflection | 1662 | 24 |

Fresnel Equations | Augustin-Jean Fresnel | France | Optics | Describe reflection and transmission of light at interface between media | 1823 | 25 |

Snell's Law | Willebrord Snellius | Netherlands | Optics | Relates angles of incidence and refraction for light crossing boundary | 1621 | 26 |

Hooke's Law | Robert Hooke | England | Mechanics, materials science | Linearly relates force and extension in spring, describes elastic materials | 1660 | 27 |

Bragg's Law | William Henry Bragg, William Lawrence Bragg | England | Crystallography | Describes condition for diffraction by crystal lattice planes | 1913 | 28 |

Carnot's Theorem | Sadi Carnot | France | Thermodynamics | Limits the maximum efficiency of any heat engine | 1824 | 29 |

Lagrange's Equations | Joseph-Louis Lagrange | Italy/France | Classical mechanics | Reformulates Newtonian mechanics, basis for Hamiltonian mechanics | 1788 | 30 |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 30 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Newton's Second Law (F = ma) | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

creditedTo | 30 | 100% | The physicist(s) credited with discovering or formulating the equation | Isaac Newton | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

country | 30 | 100% | The country where the equation was discovered or formulated | England | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

application | 30 | 100% | The primary application or area of physics the equation is used in | Classical mechanics | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

impact | 30 | 100% | The impact or significance of the equation in physics and beyond | Fundamental equation of motion, used in all areas of physics | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

yearAppeared | 30 | 100% | The year the equation first appeared | 1687 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

importanceRank | 30 | 100% | The ranking of the equation's importance in physics (1 = most important) | 1 | number | 1.9 | false |

id | habitat | diet | averageHibernationDuration | bodyTemperatureDrop | heartRateReduction | breathingRateReduction | energySaved |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Brown Bear | Forests | Omnivorous | 180 | 10 | 20 | 5 | 50 |

Arctic Ground Squirrel | Tundra | Herbivorous | 240 | 60 | 100 | 25 | 60 |

Common Poorwill | Deserts | Insectivorous | 120 | 12 | 20 | 5 | 30 |

European Hedgehog | Woodlands | Insectivorous | 150 | 40 | 50 | 10 | 70 |

Fat-tailed Dwarf Lemur | Tropical Forests | Frugivorous | 180 | 15 | 15 | 5 | 40 |

Box Turtle | Forests and Grasslands | Omnivorous | 150 | 20 | 10 | 2 | 50 |

Big Brown Bat | Caves and Forests | Insectivorous | 180 | 30 | 100 | 20 | 80 |

Alpine Marmot | Mountains | Herbivorous | 180 | 50 | 90 | 15 | 70 |

Raccoon | Forests and Urban Areas | Omnivorous | 120 | 10 | 30 | 5 | 40 |

Eastern Chipmunk | Forests | Omnivorous | 90 | 10 | 20 | 5 | 30 |

Wood Frog | Wetlands | Insectivorous | 180 | 30 | 0 | 0 | 60 |

Snapping Turtle | Freshwater | Omnivorous | 180 | 20 | 10 | 2 | 50 |

Blanding's Turtle | Freshwater | Omnivorous | 150 | 20 | 10 | 2 | 50 |

Garter Snake | Grasslands | Carnivorous | 180 | 10 | 10 | 5 | 40 |

Bumblebee | Gardens and Meadows | Nectar and Pollen | 210 | 20 | 10 | 10 | 60 |

Groundhog | Fields and Forests | Herbivorous | 150 | 40 | 50 | 10 | 70 |

Bear | Forests and Mountains | Omnivorous | 120 | 12 | 10 | 5 | 50 |

Jerboa | Deserts | Herbivorous | 180 | 15 | 20 | 5 | 40 |

Little Brown Bat | Caves and Forests | Insectivorous | 180 | 30 | 100 | 20 | 80 |

Deer Mouse | Forests and Grasslands | Omnivorous | 180 | 20 | 10 | 5 | 50 |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 20 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Brown Bear | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

habitat | 20 | 100% | The typical habitat of the animal | Forests | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

diet | 20 | 100% | The typical diet of the animal | Omnivorous | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

averageHibernationDuration | 20 | 100% | The average duration of hibernation in days | 180 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

bodyTemperatureDrop | 20 | 100% | The average drop in body temperature during hibernation in degrees Fahrenheit | 10 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

heartRateReduction | 20 | 100% | The average reduction in heart rate during hibernation in beats per minute (bpm) | 20 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

breathingRateReduction | 20 | 100% | The average reduction in breathing rate during hibernation in breaths per minute | 5 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

energySaved | 20 | 100% | The percentage of energy saved during hibernation | 50 | number | 1.9 | false |

Hormone_Name | Chemical_Formula | Min_Level_mmol_L | Max_Level_mmol_L | Peptide_Hormone | Steroid_Hormone | Amine_Hormone | Half_Life_Minutes | Pulsatile_Release | Endocrine_Gland_ID |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Insulin | Cββ βHβββNββ OββSβ | 0.0000365 | 0.000180 | true | false | false | 6 | false | 4 |

Glucagon | Cββ βHβββ NββOββS | 0.00000125 | 0.000009 | true | false | false | 5 | false | 4 |

Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) | Cββ HββIβNOβ (T4), Cββ HββIβNOβ (T3) | 0.0012 (T4), 0.0000015 (T3) | 0.0023 (T4), 0.0000025 (T3) | false | false | true | 10080 (T4), 2880 (T3) | false | 2 |

Cortisol | CββHββOβ | 0.138 | 0.690 | false | true | false | 60 | true | 3 |

Adrenaline (epinephrine) | CβHββNOβ | 0.00000546 | 0.00002180 | false | false | true | 2 | false | 3 |

Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) | CβHββNOβ | 0.00000709 | 0.00005680 | false | false | true | 2 | false | 3 |

Growth hormone | CβββHββ ββNβββOβββSβ | 0.0000003 | 0.000040 | true | false | false | 20 | true | 1 |

Testosterone | CββHββOβ | 0.00934 | 0.03470 | false | true | false | 60 | false | 5 |

Estrogen | CββHββOβ (Estradiol) | 0.0000001 | 0.0000004 | false | true | false | 1440 | false | 5 |

Progesterone | CββHββOβ | 0.000032 | 0.001590 | false | true | false | 1440 | false | 5 |

Prolactin | CβββHβββNβ βOβ βS | 0.00000087 | 0.00000430 | true | false | false | 30 | true | 1 |

Oxytocin | CββHββNββOββSβ | 0.00000007 | 0.00000007 | true | false | false | 3 | true | 1 |

Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) | CββHββ Nββ OββSβ | 0.00000028 | 0.00000028 | true | false | false | 10 | true | 1 |

Parathyroid hormone | CβββHβββNβββOβββSβ | 0.0000043 | 0.0000090 | true | false | false | 4 | true | 6 |

Calcitonin | Cβββ HβββNββOββSβ | 0.0000003 | 0.0000065 | true | false | false | 10 | false | 2 |

Leptin | CβββHββββNβββOβββSβ | 0.0000027 | 0.0000270 | true | false | false | 90 | false | 0 |

Ghrelin | CβββHβββ Nββ Oββ | 0.00000096 | 0.00000790 | true | false | false | 30 | true | 0 |

Melatonin | CββHββNβOβ | 0.0000001 | 0.0000005 | false | false | true | 40 | true | 7 |

Serotonin | CββHββNβO | 0.0000006 | 0.0000020 | false | false | true | 10 | false | 0 |

Dopamine | CβHββNOβ | 0.0000001 | 0.0000002 | false | false | true | 2 | false | 0 |

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) | CβββHβββNβββOβββSββ | 0.0025 | 0.0210 | true | false | false | 180 | true | 1 |

Luteinizing hormone (LH) | Cβ ββHβββNβββOβββSββ | 0.0080 | 0.0790 | true | false | false | 60 | true | 1 |

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) | CβββHβββNβ βOβ βS | 0.000002 | 0.000022 | true | false | false | 10 | true | 1 |

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) | CβββHβββNβ βOββSββ | 0.00045 | 0.00462 | true | false | false | 60 | true | 1 |

Erythropoietin (EPO) | Cβββ HββββNβββOβββSβ | 0.000002 | 0.000030 | true | false | false | 360 | false | 9 |

Renin | CββββHββββNββ βOβββSβ | 0.00000060 | 0.00000300 | true | false | false | 30 | true | 10 |

Aldosterone | CββHββOβ | 0.00000083 | 0.00000970 | false | true | false | 30 | true | 3 |

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) | CββHββ Nββ OββSβ | 0.00000028 | 0.00000028 | true | false | false | 10 | true | 1 |

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) | CβββHβββNβ βOββ | 0.00000030 | 0.00000065 | true | false | false | 2 | true | 11 |

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) | CβββHβββNββOββ Sβ | 0.00000006 | 0.00001700 | true | false | false | 10 | false | 0 |

Calcitriol (active form of vitamin D) | CββHββOβ | 0.0000000314 | 0.0000001555 | false | true | false | 900 | false | 12 |

Cholecystokinin (CCK) | CββHβββ NββOββSβ | 0.00000003 | 0.00000020 | true | false | false | 5 | true | 0 |

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) | CβββHβββNββOββSβ | 0.00000004 | 0.00000020 | true | false | false | 4 | true | 8 |

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) | CββHββOβ | 0.00324 | 0.01390 | false | true | false | 4320 | false | 3 |

Endorphins | CβββHβββNβ βOββS | 0.00000006 | 0.00000060 | true | false | false | 7 | false | 0 |

Gastrin | Cβ βHββNββOββSβ | 0.00000002 | 0.00000040 | true | false | false | 6 | true | 13 |

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) | Cββ βHβββNββOβ β | 0.00000007 | 0.00000055 | true | false | false | 2 | true | 14 |

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) | CβββHβββNβ βOβ β | 0.00000002 | 0.00000009 | true | false | false | 6 | true | 8 |

Histamine | Cβ HβNβ | 0.0000005 | 0.0000020 | false | false | true | 1 | false | 0 |

Incretin | CβββHβββ Nβ βOββ | 0.00000004 | 0.00000055 | true | false | false | 3 | true | 14 |

Inhibin | Cβ β βHβββNβββOβββSβ | 0.00000175 | 0.00000260 | true | false | false | 100 | false | 5 |

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) | CββHβββNββOββ | 0.000000004 | 0.000000100 | true | false | false | 20 | false | 1 |

Motilin | CβββHβββNββOββSβ | 0.00000007 | 0.00000027 | true | false | false | 5 | true | 13 |

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) | CβββHβββ Nβ β Oβ β | 0.0000002 | 0.0000008 | true | false | false | 20 | false | 0 |

Orexin | Cβ βHββNββOββ | 0.000000002 | 0.000000100 | true | false | false | 20 | true | 0 |

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) | CβββHβββNββOββ | 0.00000020 | 0.00000500 | true | false | false | 7 | true | 4 |

Peptide YY (PYY) | CβββHβββ Nβ βOβ β | 0.00000003 | 0.00000070 | true | false | false | 8 | true | 14 |

Secretin | CβββHβββ NββOββ | 0.00000002 | 0.00000055 | true | false | false | 5 | true | 15 |

Somatostatin | CββHβββNββOββSβ | 0.00000005 | 0.00000025 | true | false | false | 1 | false | 4 |

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) | CββHββNβOβ | 0.000000165 | 0.000000870 | true | false | false | 5 | true | 8 |

Natural Disaster | Description | Measurement Scale | Min | Max |
---|---|---|---|---|

Hurricane | A tropical cyclone with sustained winds of 74 mph (119 km/h) or higher | Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale | 1 | 5 |

Earthquake | Sudden shaking of the Earth's surface caused by the release of energy | Moment Magnitude Scale (MMS) | 0 | 10 |

Tsunami | A series of ocean waves caused by underwater disturbances, such as earthquakes | Tsunami Intensity Scale | 1 | 6 |

Tornado | A violently rotating column of air that extends from a thunderstorm to the ground | Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale | 0 | 5 |

Volcanic Eruption | The release of lava, ash, and gases from a volcano | Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) | 0 | 8 |

Wildfire | An uncontrolled fire in a natural area, often caused by lightning or human activity | Burned Area | 0 | Varies |

Flood | An overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry | Flood Severity | 0 | Varies |

Drought | A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a water shortage | Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) | -10 | 10 |

Landslide | The movement of rock, earth, or debris down a slope due to gravity | Landslide Velocity Scale | 1 | 7 |

Avalanche | A rapid flow of snow down a slope, often triggered by weather or human activity | Avalanche Danger Scale | 1 | 5 |

Blizzard | A severe snowstorm with high winds and low visibility | Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) | 1 | 5 |

Hailstorm | A storm that produces hailstones, which are balls of ice that fall from the sky | TORRO Hailstorm Intensity Scale | H0 | H10 |

Heat Wave | A prolonged period of excessively hot weather | Heat Index (HI) | 80Β°F | Varies |

Cold Wave | A prolonged period of excessively cold weather | Wind Chill Index | Varies | Varies |

Dust Storm | A strong wind that carries large amounts of dust and debris | Dust Storm Intensity | 0 | Varies |

Sinkhole | A depression or hole in the ground caused by the collapse of the surface layer | Sinkhole Size | 0 | Varies |

Limnic Eruption | A rare type of natural disaster where dissolved carbon dioxide suddenly erupts from deep lake water | No Scale | - | - |

Meteor Impact | The collision of a meteoroid, asteroid, or comet with the Earth's surface | Torino Impact Hazard Scale | 0 | 10 |

Solar Flare | A sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness on the Sun's surface | Solar Flare Classification System (X-class) | A1 | X28+ |

Geomagnetic Storm | A temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by solar wind shock waves | NOAA Space Weather Scale for Geomagnetic Storms | G1 | G5 |

Name | Transverse | Longitudinal | Medium Required | Propagation Speed (m/s) | Min Frequency (Hz) | Max Frequency (Hz) | Common Sources | Primary Uses or Effects | Key Characteristics | Examples | Impact on Environment/Humans |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Electromagnetic Waves | True | False | False | 299792458 | Varies | Varies | Sun, radio transmitters | Communication, medical imaging, cooking | Can travel in vacuum and through transparent media | Radio broadcasts, X-rays | Varies; UV can cause skin cancer |

Sound Waves | False | True | True | 343 | 20 | 20000 | Vibrating objects | Communication, music, sonar | Travels through elastic media | Talking, concerts, ultrasound imaging | Noise pollution can affect health and well-being |

Seismic Waves | True | True | True | 3500 | Varies | Varies | Earthquakes, explosions | Earthquake engineering, oil exploration | Can cause significant ground movement | Earthquakes, nuclear testing | Can cause extensive property damage and loss of life |

Gravitational Waves | True | False | False | 299792458 | 0.0001 | Varies | Colliding black holes, neutron stars | Astronomy, testing theories of gravity | Ripples in spacetime | Facilitated by LIGO and other observatories | None known; mostly relevant for astrophysics |

Thermal Waves | False | True | True | Varies | Varies | Varies | Heating elements, sun | Heating, climate control | Move through conduction, convection, or radiation | Heat in homes, atmospheric heat waves | Heat waves can cause health issues and environmental stress |

Chemical Waves | False | True | True | Varies | Varies | Varies | Chemical reactions | Chemical processing, biological signaling | Propagation of reaction and diffusion | Calcium waves in cells, Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction | Can be critical in biological processes |

Combustion Waves | False | True | True | Varies | Varies | Varies | Fire, explosions | Fire safety, controlled burns | Propagation of fire through combustible materials | Wildfires, controlled burns | Can cause massive destruction and pollution |

id | speed | yearInvented | passengers | range |
---|---|---|---|---|

High-speed rail | 268 | 1964 | 1000 | 1500 |

Maglev train | 375 | 1984 | 1000 | 500 |

Hyperloop (proposed) | 760 | 2013 | 28 | 900 |

Concorde (retired) | 1354 | 1969 | 100 | 4500 |

Boeing 747 | 614 | 1969 | 660 | 9800 |

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird (retired) | 2193 | 1964 | 2 | 3200 |

Space Shuttle (retired) | 17500 | 1981 | 7 | 500 |

SpaceX Crew Dragon | 17500 | 2020 | 7 | 500 |

Virgin Galactic SpaceShipTwo | 2500 | 2018 | 6 | 50 |

Blue Origin New Shepard | 2500 | 2015 | 6 | 60 |

Bugatti Chiron Super Sport 300+ | 304 | 2019 | 2 | 300 |

Hennessey Venom GT | 270 | 2010 | 2 | 400 |

Koenigsegg Agera RS | 278 | 2015 | 2 | 600 |

ThrustSSC (land speed record car) | 763 | 1997 | 1 | 50 |

North American X-15 (retired) | 4520 | 1959 | 1 | 200 |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 15 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | High-speed rail | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

speed | 15 | 100% | The maximum speed of the transportation mode in miles per hour (mph) | 268 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

yearInvented | 15 | 100% | The year the transportation mode was invented | 1964 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

passengers | 15 | 100% | The typical number of passengers the transportation mode can carry | 1000 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

range | 15 | 100% | The maximum range of the transportation mode in miles | 1500 | number | 1.9 | false |

id | classDescription | commonAlgorithms |
---|---|---|

O(1) | Execution time remains constant regardless of input size. | Finding array element by index, adding a node to the head of a linked list |

O(log n) | Execution time grows logarithmically in proportion to the input size. | Binary search |

O(n) | Execution time grows linearly with the input size. | Linear search, traversing an array |

O(n log n) | Execution time grows linearly and logarithmically with the input size. | Quick sort, merge sort |

O(n^2) | Execution time grows quadratically with the input size. | Bubble sort, selection sort, insertion sort |

O(n^3) | Execution time grows cubically with the input size. | Naive matrix multiplication |

O(2^n) | Execution time grows exponentially based on the input size. | Brute force solutions for the traveling salesman problem, recursive calculation of Fibonacci numbers |

O(n!) | Execution time grows factorially based on the input size. | Solving the traveling salesman problem via brute force, generating all permutations of a set |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 8 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | O(1) | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

classDescription | 8 | 100% | A brief explanation of the complexity class, often describing how the time or space requirements grow with the size of the input. | Execution time remains constant regardless of input size. | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

commonAlgorithms | 8 | 100% | Examples of algorithms or operations that typically exhibit this level of complexity. | Finding array element by index, adding a node to the head of a linked list | string | 1.9 | false |

id | wikipedia | type | applications | keyAdvancements | inventorDeveloper | invented | resolution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Optical Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_microscope | Optical | General biological and medical microscopy | Improved lens quality and microscope design for better image clarity and detail. | Zacharias Janssen (attributed) | 1590 | 200 |

Electron Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_microscope | Electron | Cellular biology, materials science, virology | Enhanced magnification and resolution, allowing visualization of structures at the atomic level. | Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll | 1931 | 0.2 |

Scanning Tunneling Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scanning_tunneling_microscope | Scanning Probe | Surface science, nanotechnology | Ability to image surfaces at the atomic level. | Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer | 1981 | 0.1 |

Confocal Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confocal_microscopy | Optical | 3D imaging of biological samples | Provides optical sectioning capability to observe multiple layers within specimens. | Marvin Minsky | 1957 | 200 |

Atomic Force Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_force_microscopy | Scanning Probe | Nanotechnology, surface engineering | Can image non-conductive materials, providing a three-dimensional surface profile. | Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate, Christoph Gerber | 1986 | 0.1 |

Fluorescence Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescence_microscope | Optical | Biological sciences, medical diagnostics | Uses fluorescence and phosphorescence to study properties of organic or inorganic substances. | Oskar HeimstΓ€dt | 1911 | 200 |

Phase Contrast Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_contrast_microscopy | Optical | Live cell imaging without staining | Enhances contrast in transparent and colorless samples. | Frits Zernike | 1934 | 200 |

Transmission Electron Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_electron_microscopy | Electron | Material science, cancer research, virology | Capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes, down to the level of atomic structures. | Ernst Ruska | 1933 | 0.05 |

Scanning Electron Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scanning_electron_microscope | Electron | Materials research, forensic examinations, biological research | Produces high-resolution images of a sample surface, revealing detailed topography. | Manfred von Ardenne | 1942 | 1 |

Digital Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_microscope | Optical | Education, industrial inspection, clinical research | Integration with digital cameras and computers for enhanced imaging and analysis. | Various contributors | 1980 | 200 |

Stereo Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereo_microscope | Optical | Manufacturing, botany, entomology | Provides a three-dimensional viewing experience by using two separate optical paths. | Cherubin d'Orleans | 1671 | 10000 |

X-ray Microscope | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_microscopy | X-ray | Material sciences, paleontology | Uses X-rays to penetrate samples and create images of the internal structure. | Raymond Castaing | 1946 | 50 |

Cryo-Electron Microscopy | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryo-electron_microscopy | Electron | Structural biology, virology | Allows imaging of samples at cryogenic temperatures, preserving native state. | Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank, Richard Henderson | 1975 | 0.1 |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 13 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Optical Microscope | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

wikipedia | 13 | 100% | A URL to learn more about this kind of microscope. | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_microscope | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

type | 13 | 100% | Classify each microscope by type (e.g., optical, electron, scanning probe) to allow users to filter and understand the specific applications and functionalities of different microscopes. | Optical | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

applications | 13 | 100% | Describe common or notable applications of each microscope type, such as biology, materials science, nanotechnology, etc. This helps users understand where a particular microscope can be best utilized. | General biological and medical microscopy | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

keyAdvancements | 13 | 100% | List significant improvements or iterations made over the initial model. This could include details on enhancements in resolution, usability, or adaptation to different scientific needs, showing the evolution of the technology. | Improved lens quality and microscope design for better image clarity and detail. | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

inventorDeveloper | 13 | 100% | Knowing who invented or developed the microscope can provide historical context and acknowledgment of significant contributions in the field. This also helps in understanding the geographical and institutional origins of | Zacharias Janssen (attributed) | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

invented | 13 | 100% | The year this telescope was invented | 1590 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

resolution | 13 | 100% | The smallest resolution it can see, in nanometers. | 200 | number | 1.9 | false |

id | spectralType | distance | apparentMagnitude | absoluteMagnitude | radialVelocity | mass |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Proxima Centauri | M5.5Ve | 4.24 | 11.13 | 15.6 | -22.204 | 0.1221 |

Alpha Centauri A | G2V | 4.37 | -0.01 | 4.38 | -21.4 | 1.1 |

Alpha Centauri B | K1V | 4.37 | 1.33 | 5.71 | -18 | 0.907 |

Barnard's Star | M4.0Ve | 5.96 | 9.54 | 13.22 | -110.51 | 0.144 |

Sirius A | A1V | 8.66 | -1.46 | 1.42 | -5.5 | 2.02 |

Sirius B | DA2 | 8.66 | 8.44 | 11.34 | -5.5 | 1.018 |

Luyten 726-8 A | M5.5Ve | 8.73 | 12.52 | 15.46 | -32.5 | 0.102 |

Luyten 726-8 B | M6Ve | 8.73 | 13.05 | 16.24 | -25 | 0.1 |

Ross 154 | M3.5Ve | 9.69 | 10.44 | 13.92 | -9.6 | 0.17 |

Ross 248 | M5.5Ve | 10.32 | 12.29 | 15.8 | -81 | 0.136 |

Epsilon Eridani | K2V | 10.48 | 3.73 | 6.18 | 15.5 | 0.82 |

Lacaille 9352 | M0.5V | 10.73 | 7.34 | 10.58 | -37 | 0.45 |

Ross 128 | M4V | 11 | 11.15 | 14.79 | -30 | 0.168 |

EZ Aquarii A | M5Ve | 11.08 | 12.87 | 16.47 | -60 | 0.13 |

EZ Aquarii B | M5Ve | 11.08 | 12.87 | 16.47 | -60 | 0.13 |

EZ Aquarii C | M5Ve | 11.08 | 12.87 | 16.47 | -60 | 0.13 |

61 Cygni A | K5V | 11.4 | 5.2 | 7.49 | -64.3 | 0.67 |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 17 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Proxima Centauri | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

spectralType | 17 | 100% | Classification of the star based on spectral characteristics and temperature, ranging from O (hot and blue) to M (cool and red) | M5.5Ve | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

distance | 17 | 100% | The distance to the star from Earth, measured in light-years or parsecs | 4.24 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

apparentMagnitude | 17 | 100% | The brightness of the star as seen from Earth | 11.13 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

absoluteMagnitude | 17 | 100% | The intrinsic brightness of the star if it were placed at a standard distance of 10 parsecs from Earth | 15.6 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

radialVelocity | 17 | 100% | The speed at which the star moves towards or away from the Solar System, measured in km/s | -22.204 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

mass | 17 | 100% | The mass of the star, expressed in solar masses | 0.1221 | number | 1.9 | false |

id | organism | diameter | low | median | high |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mitochondria | human | 1000 | 200 | 500 | 2000 |

Chloroplast | plant | 6000 | 20 | 40 | 100 |

Nucleus | human | 6000 | 1 | 1 | 2 |

Golgi Apparatus | human | 1200 | 10 | 20 | 50 |

Endoplasmic Reticulum | human | 120 | 1 | 1 | 5 |

Ribosome | human | 25 | 10000 | 50000 | 100000 |

Lysosome | human | 1200 | 50 | 200 | 500 |

Peroxisome | human | 500 | 100 | 300 | 500 |

Vacuole | plant | 30000 | 1 | 1 | 3 |

Centrosome | human | 700 | 1 | 2 | 2 |

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum | human | 120 | 1 | 1 | 5 |

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum | human | 150 | 1 | 1 | 5 |

Nucleolus | human | 2500 | 1 | 1 | 4 |

Plasmodesmata | plant | 50 | 1000 | 5000 | 10000 |

Mitosome | protozoa | 500 | 5 | 10 | 20 |

Hydrogenosome | protozoa | 500 | 5 | 10 | 20 |

Glyoxysome | plant | 300 | 100 | 200 | 300 |

Chromoplast | plant | 2000 | 2 | 5 | 10 |

Amyloplast | plant | 2000 | 5 | 10 | 30 |

Elaioplast | plant | 1000 | 10 | 20 | 50 |

Periplastidial compartment (PPC) | plant | 100 | 5 | 15 | 30 |

Flagellum | protozoa | 200 | 1 | 1 | 10 |

Cilium | human | 250 | 10 | 50 | 100 |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 23 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Mitochondria | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

organism | 23 | 100% | The organism name mainly associated with the organelle such as human, plant, whale, etc. | human | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

diameter | 23 | 100% | The diameter of the organelle in nanometers | 1000 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

low | 23 | 100% | For cells that have this kind of organelle, how many are usually found on the low end? | 200 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

median | 23 | 100% | For cells that have this kind of organelle, how many are usually found in the median? | 500 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

high | 23 | 100% | For cells that have this kind of organelle, how many are usually found on the high end? | 2000 | number | 1.9 | false |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 20 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | JavaScript | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

wikipedia | 20 | 100% | What is the Wikipedia page for this language? | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaScript | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

creators | 20 | 100% | Who created this language? | Brendan Eich | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

appeared | 20 | 100% | What year was the language publicly released and/or announced? | 1995 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

openSource | 20 | 100% | Is the language open source? | true | boolean | 1.9 | false |