The Four Fundamental Forces

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Note: these ScrollSets were generated by LLMs without extensive human review.


id mediatorParticle interactionType unification discoverer mathematicalFormulation experimentalEvidence quantumTheory classicalTheory applications symmetry discoveryYear strength range strengthScale massless
Gravity Graviton (theoretical) All particles with mass Not unified with other forces yet Isaac Newton F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2 Cavendish experiment General Relativity (attempts at Quantum Gravity) Newton's Law of Gravitation Orbits, planetary motion, tides Spacetime symmetry 1687 6.6743e-11 Infinity 1 true
Electromagnetic Photon Charged particles Unified with weak force (Electroweak theory) James Clerk Maxwell F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2 Hertz's experiments on electromagnetic waves Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) Maxwell's Equations Electricity, magnetism, light Gauge symmetry (U(1)) 1864 1 Infinity 2 true
Weak W and Z bosons All fermions Unified with electromagnetic force (Electroweak theory) Enrico Fermi Described by Fermi's interaction Observed in beta decay Quantum Flavour Dynamics (QFD) Fermi's Theory of Beta Decay Radioactive decay, nuclear fusion Gauge symmetry (SU(2)) 1934 0.00001 1e-18 3 false
Strong Gluon Quarks and gluons Part of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) Murray Gell-Mann Described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) Deep inelastic scattering experiments Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) Does not have a classical counterpart Binding protons and neutrons in nuclei Gauge symmetry (SU(3)) 1973 1 1e-15 4 true


Name Values Coverage Question Example Type Source SortIndex IsComputed IsRequired IsConceptDelimiter Crux
id 4 100% What is the ID of this concept? Gravity string 1 false true true
mediatorParticle 4 100% The particle that mediates the force Graviton (theoretical) string 1.9 false
interactionType 4 100% The type of particles that the force interacts with All particles with mass string 1.9 false
unification 4 100% Theoretical unification of the force with others Not unified with other forces yet string 1.9 false
discoverer 4 100% The scientist(s) who discovered or proposed the force Isaac Newton string 1.9 false
mathematicalFormulation 4 100% The mathematical formulation or equation that describes the force F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2 string 1.9 false
experimentalEvidence 4 100% Key experimental evidence supporting the existence of the force Cavendish experiment string 1.9 false
quantumTheory 4 100% The quantum field theory describing the force General Relativity (attempts at Quantum Gravity) string 1.9 false
classicalTheory 4 100% The classical theory or law describing the force Newton's Law of Gravitation string 1.9 false
applications 4 100% Practical applications or phenomena explained by the force Orbits, planetary motion, tides string 1.9 false
symmetry 4 100% The symmetry or invariance associated with the force Spacetime symmetry string 1.9 false
discoveryYear 4 100% The year the force was discovered or proposed 1687 number 1.9 false
strength 4 100% The relative strength of the force compared to the other forces 6.6743e-11 number 1.9 false
range 4 100% The range of the force in meters Infinity number 1.9 false
strengthScale 4 100% The scale of strength (from 0 to 1) for comparison among the forces 1 number 1.9 false
massless 4 100% Whether the mediator particle is massless (true/false) true boolean 1.9 false