id | mediatorParticle | interactionType | unification | discoverer | mathematicalFormulation | experimentalEvidence | quantumTheory | classicalTheory | applications | symmetry | discoveryYear | strength | range | strengthScale | massless |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Gravity | Graviton (theoretical) | All particles with mass | Not unified with other forces yet | Isaac Newton | F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2 | Cavendish experiment | General Relativity (attempts at Quantum Gravity) | Newton's Law of Gravitation | Orbits, planetary motion, tides | Spacetime symmetry | 1687 | 6.6743e-11 | Infinity | 1 | true |

Electromagnetic | Photon | Charged particles | Unified with weak force (Electroweak theory) | James Clerk Maxwell | F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2 | Hertz's experiments on electromagnetic waves | Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) | Maxwell's Equations | Electricity, magnetism, light | Gauge symmetry (U(1)) | 1864 | 1 | Infinity | 2 | true |

Weak | W and Z bosons | All fermions | Unified with electromagnetic force (Electroweak theory) | Enrico Fermi | Described by Fermi's interaction | Observed in beta decay | Quantum Flavour Dynamics (QFD) | Fermi's Theory of Beta Decay | Radioactive decay, nuclear fusion | Gauge symmetry (SU(2)) | 1934 | 0.00001 | 1e-18 | 3 | false |

Strong | Gluon | Quarks and gluons | Part of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) | Murray Gell-Mann | Described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) | Deep inelastic scattering experiments | Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) | Does not have a classical counterpart | Binding protons and neutrons in nuclei | Gauge symmetry (SU(3)) | 1973 | 1 | 1e-15 | 4 | true |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 4 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Gravity | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

mediatorParticle | 4 | 100% | The particle that mediates the force | Graviton (theoretical) | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

interactionType | 4 | 100% | The type of particles that the force interacts with | All particles with mass | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

unification | 4 | 100% | Theoretical unification of the force with others | Not unified with other forces yet | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

discoverer | 4 | 100% | The scientist(s) who discovered or proposed the force | Isaac Newton | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

mathematicalFormulation | 4 | 100% | The mathematical formulation or equation that describes the force | F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2 | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

experimentalEvidence | 4 | 100% | Key experimental evidence supporting the existence of the force | Cavendish experiment | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

quantumTheory | 4 | 100% | The quantum field theory describing the force | General Relativity (attempts at Quantum Gravity) | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

classicalTheory | 4 | 100% | The classical theory or law describing the force | Newton's Law of Gravitation | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

applications | 4 | 100% | Practical applications or phenomena explained by the force | Orbits, planetary motion, tides | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

symmetry | 4 | 100% | The symmetry or invariance associated with the force | Spacetime symmetry | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

discoveryYear | 4 | 100% | The year the force was discovered or proposed | 1687 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

strength | 4 | 100% | The relative strength of the force compared to the other forces | 6.6743e-11 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

range | 4 | 100% | The range of the force in meters | Infinity | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

strengthScale | 4 | 100% | The scale of strength (from 0 to 1) for comparison among the forces | 1 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

massless | 4 | 100% | Whether the mediator particle is massless (true/false) | true | boolean | 1.9 | false |

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