id | creditedTo | country | application | impact | yearAppeared | importanceRank |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Newton's Second Law (F = ma) | Isaac Newton | England | Classical mechanics | Fundamental equation of motion, used in all areas of physics | 1687 | 1 |

Maxwell's Equations | James Clerk Maxwell | Scotland | Electromagnetism | Unified electricity, magnetism, and light; basis for modern electrodynamics | 1865 | 2 |

Schrödinger Equation | Erwin Schrödinger | Austria | Quantum mechanics | Describes the behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic level | 1926 | 3 |

Einstein's Energy-Mass Equivalence (E = mc^2) | Albert Einstein | Germany/Switzerland | Special relativity, nuclear physics | Relates energy to mass, key to understanding nuclear reactions and energy | 1905 | 4 |

Hubble's Law | Edwin Hubble | United States | Cosmology | Established the expansion of the universe, cornerstone of Big Bang theory | 1929 | 5 |

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle | Werner Heisenberg | Germany | Quantum mechanics | Fundamental limit on precision of measurements at quantum scale | 1927 | 6 |

Boltzmann's Entropy Equation | Ludwig Boltzmann | Austria | Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics | Relates entropy to number of microscopic states, foundation of statistical physics | 1877 | 7 |

Planck's Energy Quantum | Max Planck | Germany | Quantum mechanics | Introduced the concept of energy quanta, launching quantum theory | 1900 | 8 |

Dirac Equation | Paul Dirac | England | Quantum mechanics, special relativity | Relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation, predicted antimatter | 1928 | 9 |

Euler's Equation (e^(i*pi) + 1 = 0) | Leonhard Euler | Switzerland | Complex analysis | Relates fundamental constants e, i, pi; considered most beautiful equation | 1748 | 10 |

Principle of Least Action | Pierre Louis Maupertuis | France | Classical mechanics | Alternative formulation of mechanics using variational principle | 1744 | 11 |

Noether's Theorem | Emmy Noether | Germany | Theoretical physics | Connects symmetries to conservation laws, fundamental to modern physics | 1915 | 12 |

Navier-Stokes Equations | Claude-Louis Navier, George Stokes | France, Ireland | Fluid dynamics | Describes motion of viscous fluids, used in aerodynamics, weather, & more | 1822 | 13 |

Riemann Hypothesis | Bernhard Riemann | Germany | Number theory | Conjectured rule for distribution of prime numbers, unproven but very important | 1859 | 14 |

Gauss's Law | Carl Friedrich Gauss | Germany | Electrostatics | Relates electric field to charge distribution, part of Maxwell's equations | 1835 | 15 |

Ampère's Circuital Law | André-Marie Ampère | France | Magnetostatics | Relates magnetic field to electric current, part of Maxwell's equations | 1826 | 16 |

Faraday's Law of Induction | Michael Faraday | England | Electromagnetism | Describes how changing magnetic field induces electric field | 1831 | 17 |

Boyle's Law | Robert Boyle | Ireland | Thermodynamics | Relates pressure and volume of gas at constant temperature | 1662 | 18 |

Fourier's Heat Equation | Joseph Fourier | France | Heat transfer | Describes conduction of heat in solids, used in many applications | 1822 | 19 |

Coulomb's Law | Charles-Augustin de Coulomb | France | Electrostatics | Describes force between electric charges, foundation of electrostatics | 1785 | 20 |

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion | Johannes Kepler | Germany | Astronomy | Describes motion of planets around the Sun, basis for Newton's gravity | 1609 | 21 |

Lorentz Force Law | Hendrik Lorentz | Netherlands | Electromagnetism | Describes force on charge moving in electromagnetic field | 1895 | 22 |

Biot-Savart Law | Jean-Baptiste Biot, Félix Savart | France | Magnetostatics | Describes magnetic field generated by electric current | 1820 | 23 |

Fermat's Principle of Least Time | Pierre de Fermat | France | Optics | Light travels path that takes least time, explains refraction and reflection | 1662 | 24 |

Fresnel Equations | Augustin-Jean Fresnel | France | Optics | Describe reflection and transmission of light at interface between media | 1823 | 25 |

Snell's Law | Willebrord Snellius | Netherlands | Optics | Relates angles of incidence and refraction for light crossing boundary | 1621 | 26 |

Hooke's Law | Robert Hooke | England | Mechanics, materials science | Linearly relates force and extension in spring, describes elastic materials | 1660 | 27 |

Bragg's Law | William Henry Bragg, William Lawrence Bragg | England | Crystallography | Describes condition for diffraction by crystal lattice planes | 1913 | 28 |

Carnot's Theorem | Sadi Carnot | France | Thermodynamics | Limits the maximum efficiency of any heat engine | 1824 | 29 |

Lagrange's Equations | Joseph-Louis Lagrange | Italy/France | Classical mechanics | Reformulates Newtonian mechanics, basis for Hamiltonian mechanics | 1788 | 30 |

Name | Values | Coverage | Question | Example | Type | Source | SortIndex | IsComputed | IsRequired | IsConceptDelimiter | Crux |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

id | 30 | 100% | What is the ID of this concept? | Newton's Second Law (F = ma) | string | 1 | false | true | true | ||

creditedTo | 30 | 100% | The physicist(s) credited with discovering or formulating the equation | Isaac Newton | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

country | 30 | 100% | The country where the equation was discovered or formulated | England | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

application | 30 | 100% | The primary application or area of physics the equation is used in | Classical mechanics | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

impact | 30 | 100% | The impact or significance of the equation in physics and beyond | Fundamental equation of motion, used in all areas of physics | string | 1.9 | false | ||||

yearAppeared | 30 | 100% | The year the equation first appeared | 1687 | number | 1.9 | false | ||||

importanceRank | 30 | 100% | The ranking of the equation's importance in physics (1 = most important) | 1 | number | 1.9 | false |

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